Friday, March 13, 2020
Green Revolution History and Overview The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico in the 1940s. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the number of calories produced per acre of agriculture. History and Development of the Green Revolution The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an American scientist interested in agriculture. In the 1940s, he began conducting research in Mexico and developed new disease resistance high-yield varieties of wheat. By combining Borlaugs wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural technologies, Mexico was able to produce more wheat than was needed by its own citizens, leading to them becoming an exporter of wheat by the 1960s. Prior to the use of these varieties, the country was importing almost half of its wheat supply. Due to the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico, its technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s. The United States, for instance, imported about half of its wheat in the 1940s but after using Green Revolution technologies, it became self-sufficient in the 1950s and became an exporter by the 1960s. In order to continue using Green Revolution technologies to produce more food for a growing population worldwide, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation, as well as many government agencies around the world funded increased research. In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. Countries all over the world, in turn, benefited from the Green Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution. India, for example, was on the brink of mass famine in the early 1960s because of its rapidly growing population. Borlaug and the Ford Foundation then implemented research there and they developed a new variety of rice, IR8, that produced more grain per plant when grown with irrigation and fertilizers. Today, India is one of the worlds leading rice producers and IR8 rice usage spread throughout Asia in the decades following the rices development in India. Plant Technologies of the Green Revolution The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties - meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted. The terms often used with these plants that make them successful are harvest index, photosynthate allocation, and insensitivity to day length. The harvest index refers to the above-ground weight of the plant. During the Green Revolution, plants that had the largest seeds were selected to create the most production possible. After selectively breeding these plants, they evolved to all have the characteristic of larger seeds. These larger seeds then created more grain yield and a heavier above ground weight. This larger above ground weight then led to an increased photosynthate allocation. By maximizing the seed or food portion of the plant, it was able to use photosynthesis more efficiently because the energy produced during this process went directly to the food portion of the plant. Finally, by selectively breeding plants that were not sensitive to day length, researchers like Borlaug were able to double a cropÃ¢â¬â¢s production because the plants were not limited to certain areas of the globe based solely on the amount of light available to them. Impacts of the Green Revolution Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers. Irrigation also played a large role in the Green Revolution and this forever changed the areas where various crops can be grown. For instance, before the Green Revolution, agriculture was severely limited to areas with a significant amount of rainfall, but by using irrigation, water can be stored and sent to drier areas, putting more land into agricultural production - thus increasing nationwide crop yields. In addition, the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say, rice started being grown. In India, for example, there were about 30,000 rice varieties prior to the Green Revolution, today there are around ten - all the most productive types. By having this increased crop homogeneity though the types were more prone to disease and pests because there were not enough varieties to fight them off. In order to protect these few varieties then, pesticide use grew as well. Finally, the use of Green Revolution technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production worldwide. Places like India and China that once feared famine have not experienced it since implementing the use of IR8 rice and other food varieties. Criticism of the Green Revolution Along with the benefits gained from the Green Revolution, there have been several criticisms. The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide. The second major criticism is that places like Africa have not significantly benefited from the Green Revolution. The major problems surrounding the use of these technologies here though are a lack of infrastructure, governmental corruption, and insecurity in nations. Despite these criticisms though, the Green Revolution has forever changed the way agriculture is conducted worldwide, benefiting the people of many nations in need of increased food production.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
International Human Resource Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1
International Human Resource Management - Essay Example Bearing all that in mind a detailed look at how and why EU social policy was developed will be examined and its development to prevent social dumping is also examined. Brown contends that Ã¢â¬Å"national and supranational policies of social protection and labor market regulation are appropriate for a deepening and widening the European Union and explores good and bad ideas for the Social ChapterÃ¢â¬ . (2004 p 19) Brown also states that the success of the national social policy is prejudiced by the degree of economic integration. (2004 p 10) This means that deeper EU mixing and incorporation will put emphasis on the stress for social policy reform and synchronization. However, the most policy-makers should strive for is minimum standards acceptable to all countries.Ã¢â¬ (Brown 2004 p 11) To examine the issues surrounding the policy in respect to social dumping it is important to understand the necessary push of economic integration in its numerous forms. These include trade liberalization to enhanced labor and capital mobility. Brown 1004 p 11) These can be can be better understood by putting them in the context of the premise that they are by and large desirable, yet it usually has Ã¢â¬Å"adverse consequences for relatively inefficient producers.Ã¢â¬ Brown. This is because relations and communication between social policy and economic integration become particularly obvious whenever it is the poorer members of EU countries who lose out. (Brown)In instances such as this integration is likely to lead to demands for greater social protection. The usefulness of national social policy is affected by the amount of economic mixing as well. In this instance organization and synchronization may possibly be essential. Especially if such policies are to be successful and have any value. If this is the scenario governments may possibly use them advantageously. Governments could use them strategically to benefit their own citizens at the expense of foreigners. Brown 2004 p 11) Examples of how this could be done include presenting less regulation and lower social protection. This would encourage inflows of capital, that would otherwise be known as 'social dumping'. The problem that can arise when this occurs is that if left unrestricted lower levels of social protection all round will result. Although to the degree that current national social policies in Europe are" ill-designed or fail to protect the most disadvantaged members of society, this could be a positive outcome." (Brown 2004 p 12) If anything has been learned from past EU integration it would be that the amplification of this, including the poorer Mediterranean countries and Ireland would be the result. In addition, realization of
Monday, February 10, 2020
How Does Gender Bias Negatively Impact the Role of Men in Nursing - Essay Example Gender bias negatively impacts the role of men in nursing by: Not all male nurses believe gender bias has had a negative impact on their career. But, fewer than 6% of the Registered Nurses in the United States today are men (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Considering approximately 49% of the population is male, the 6% figure indicates that bias may be impacting the entry and retention of men in the nursing field. Furthermore, Wilson (2005) in a study of Australian nursing students, found that in a three-year period, the average attrition rate for males in a university-based nursing program was 55.5% but only 45% for females. This, too, raises concerns about what is keeping men from entering or staying in the nursing field. One answer is gender bias. Gender bias, most succinctly defined by the higher education company McGraw-Hill, is "Behavior that results from the underlying belief in sex role stereotypes." (McGraw-Hill Education Company). Entire dissertations have been written defining sex role stereotypes. ... eotypes ("conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conceptions, opinions, or images") ("Stereotypes") based on the roles ("characteristic and expected social behaviors of an individual") ("Roles") based on sex/gender, traditionally male or female. Vogel, Wester, Heesacker, & Madon's (2003) finding that women and men act in accordance with social roles which are often segregated along gender lines helps summarize how sex role stereotypes are perpetuated. They continue, "Popular culture has embraced the idea that women and men are different. Self-help books, talk shows, and magazine articles routinely acknowledge large gender differences" With popular culture stressing distinct differences and roles for men and women, it is understandable that a career traditionally considered female would not be considered attractive to some men. To assess biases and the status of Men in Nursing in 2005, the research firm of Bernard Hodes Group performed an on-line survey, open to male nurses and nursing students, from October until December 2004 and received almost 500 responses (N=498) (Bernard Hodes Group, 2005). Of note were the men's responses to the question regarding their perceptions about nursing before entering the field. The top four responses, with percentages responding, to what they had as perceptions of men and nursing: Traditionally female dominated field (85%) Other professions perceived "more appropriate" (62%) Nursing salaries are not competitive with other careers (33%) Nursing is not an autonomous, decision-making profession (27%) The next most popular response, "Nursing doesn't provide much upward mobility" garnered only 16% of responses. It is evident that the perception - or stereotype - of a subservient female is still in place. The media does not
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Windows displays Essay Firstly I had to choose the idea for the window display. I searched internet, looked in windows displays to other shops, heard to the advice of friends and decided to choose brandy. I selected the brandy, because I saw many examples in other window displays and much information about the brandy can be found on the Internet. Secondly, I made a few pictures on similar windows displays in town for my story board. In my story board I used different colour from light yellow to brown. I chose these colours, because, when we hear the word of brandy, we mean the following colours: light yellow, amber, light brown and brown. After the new oak barrels for 7-8 months, the alcohol becomes a light golden colour and filled with tannins. After 4-5 years, this metamorphosis occurs. Brandy alcohol becomes soft, velvety and rich. This is reflected in the variety of flower and fruit colours, as well as in sweet vanilla flavour, which appear primarily due to the transformation of lignin extracted from the oak. This flavour is a feature of young brandies. After 8-10 years of aging cognac alcohol becomes more gentle and harmonious. Inherent flavours much benefit in force, saturation, and persistence. Most important a bouquet, which is clearly felt by the noble tone leather, tobacco and honey. After 20 years, a bouquet of brandy alcohol becomes more intense and complex. To the shades of leather, tobacco and honey notes added candied orange, resins, mushrooms and undergrowth. You are so-called Rance (rancho) the aroma of an old, slightly oxidized wine, a little reminiscent of the forest, and almonds. This is the main characteristic of the good old spirits, which with age have become stronger. Brandy gets pretty fiery colour. The natural decline in the inherent strength and reduces the burning sensation of alcohol. The older the brandy, the longer it persists aftertaste (up to several minutes). I chose this style of writing (Mongolian Baiti 28), because it is well suited to the topic. I chose these accessories: glass, barrel and bottle, because brandy is stored in barrels, then bottle it off and drink out of glass. I hope my accessories were noticeable. Avoid excess pressure from the edge of your seat on the backs of your legs and knees. A footrest may be helpful, particularly for smaller users. Always carry scissors with the tapered end towards the floor; when passing to another person pass handle first. In this project I made pictures, chose colour and completed first window display in my life. I think this is good experience for me in the future. Displays are very effective in attracting the passing public to enter the shop and make purchases. If the window display or display outside the shop is attractive it immediately gives the impression that the goods inside are of good quality.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
I Haven't Got a Dime for College Growing up I've met the best of people and I've met the worst of people. My father has always been my hero. He loved, provided for and took care of two children and a sick wife everyday for twenty years. I look at his picture in my wallet each day and wonder if I can ever measure up to him. I thought my cousin had agreed to lend me $15,000 so that I could attend a decent college. I agreed to sign a promissory note. I showed up at the New City Brewery to sign the papers and pick up the check. I read the paper. It said for $30,000 I was selling him my interest in a vacation cabin our grandmother bought fifty years ago. The check however was only for $15,000. "I don't understand." I pushed back his Mount Blanc pen and the unsigned contract. Bill folded his arms. "In 1956 your father borrowed $6,000 from my father and I want it back." He flashed a mean smile that I hadn't seen since 1957 when the bank took away my family's house. My father took me to my cousin's house to ask for his outgrown clothing for me. That day my cousin handed me a book along with some clothes from his hamper and gave me this same vicious smile. The book was "The Prince and The Pauper". My father worked sixty hours a week for the next fifteen years paying off debts and sending his children to college. He stopped paying old debts when my mother's medical bills made that impossible. He died a few years later. I've missed him every day. I hadn't used that small cabin at the lake in a decade.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
html http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf . G o o g l e html . Page 1 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 1 Citation Kato, A. (2006). Error analysis of high school student essays. Accents Asia [Online], 1 (2), 1-13. Available: http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf Error Analysis of High School Student Essays Asako Kato Fudooka Seiwa High School IntroductionEver since the introduction of oral communication into the school curriculum in 1989, speaking has drawn attention as an important skill for Japanese students to master. A variety of speaking and listening practices have been experimented within high school English classes. Writing has also been included as an extensive practice. The 2003 revision of the Course of Study emphasizes Ã¢â¬Å"writingÃ¢â¬ as a vehicle of communication to convey messages according to the purpose and the situation (MEXT, 2003).However, in many of the university entrance exam-oriented high schools, writing classes are modified into grammar-centered classes; in other words, the students are accustomed to writing short sentences based upon the structures or the grammar points they are taught, and chances of writing effective essays are limited (Minegishi, 2005). It is true that grammar processing is needed for accurate production, but it is a challenge to teach how to write essays or even paragraphs within the available classroom hours, with the exception perhaps of some foreign language elective courses in select high schools.Under these circumstances, the English Composition Division of the Saitama Senior High School English Education and Research Association hosts writing contests, for the purpose of encouraging students to test their English knowledge and to enhance their production skills in the form of writing. The contest consists of two sections: a translation section and an essay writing Page 2 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 2 section. In the essay section the participants are given topics and expected to write their opinions in about 200 words. They have 80 minutes to work on translation and essay writing.The translation sentences are assigned according to level, but the essay topic is the same for all. The translation part is marked and graded by Japanese teachers; the essays are evaluated by ALTs (Assistant Language Teachers) according to three criteria: creativity, organization and grammar. The winners are chosen depending on the total points of the two sections. In this paper, I will shed some light on the essays and analyze them with a view towards identifying problems students have, which will provide evidence of how English is learned and what strategies students are employing to construct their essays.The primary focus of this paper is on grammar in writing not creativity and organization, but some pedagogical suggestions for teaching and learning are also mentioned. Methods The data analyzed for this study are errors in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ess ays written in an essay competition held in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In this contest, the participants were given the topic, Ã¢â¬Å"If you were to meet a celebrity, who would you like to meet? What would you like to ask him/her? What would you like to do with him/her? The errors in the essays were categorized based on FerrisÃ¢â¬â¢ (2005) Analysis Model (Fig. 1). Her Ã¢â¬Å"Common ESL writing errorsÃ¢â¬ fall into four categories; morphological errors, lexical errors, syntactic errors, and mechanical errors. This model is based upon the Ã¢â¬Å"Description of the major error categoriesÃ¢â¬ (Fig. 2), which covers verb errors, noun ending errors, article errors, word wrong, and sentence structure (p. 92). According to James (1998), an error analysis model must be Ã¢â¬Å"well-developed, highly elaborated, and self-explanatoryÃ¢â¬ (p. 95). FerrisÃ¢â¬â¢ model fulfills these needs.With this system it is easy to identify global and local errors (Burt and Kiparsky, 1972, cited i n James, 1998) which I added to FerrisÃ¢â¬â¢ model of major errors in Figure 1. Global errors are major errors in sentence structure, which makes a sentence difficult or impossible to understand, whereas local errors are minor mistakes, which do not cause problems of comprehension. In FerrisÃ¢â¬â¢ classification, syntactic errors are considered global errors. Mechanical and lexical mistakes, on the other hand, are local errors. Morphological errors can be global errors, Page 3Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 3 but when they do not hinder readersÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the content they are local errors. Figure 1 Common ESL Writing Errors based on FerrisÃ¢â¬â¢(2005) Model Morphological Errors > global / local errors Verbs: Tense, From, Subject-verb agreement Nouns: Articles/determiners, Noun endings (plural/possessive) Lexical Errors > local errors Word choice, Word form, Informal usage, Idiom error, Pronoun error Syntactic Errors > global errors Sentence structure, Run-ons, Fragments Mechanical > local errorsPunctuation, Spelling, Capitalization* * Ã¢â¬Å"CapitalizationÃ¢â¬ is added in this study. Figure 2 Description of major error categories (Ferris, 2005) Verb errors All errors in verb tense or form, including relevant subject-verb agreement errors. Noun ending errors Plural or progressive ending incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary; includes relevant subject-verb agreement errors Article errors Article or other determiner incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary Word wrong All specific lexical errors in word choice or word form, including preposition and pronoun errors.Spelling errors only included if the (apparent) misspelling resulted in an actual English word. Sentence structure Errors in sentence/clause boundaries(run-ons, fragments, comma splices), word order, omitted words or phrases, unnecessary words or phrases; other unidiomatic sentence construction. Participants The essays analyzed for this study were written by 148 high school stud ents: 46 first year students, 58 second year students, and 44 third year students; 48 males and 100 females. The participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ high schools consisted of twenty public schools and two private schools.Most of these Page 4 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 4 schools are considered Ã¢â¬Å"academicÃ¢â¬ high schools in that they prepare students for university exams, which means the students tend to be highly motivated and are expected to be able to utilize their English grammar, structure knowledge and vocabulary in writing. Procedure All errors were marked and classified. They were first classified into global errors or local errors. The verb-related errors were considered as Ã¢â¬Å"verb errorsÃ¢â¬ , therefore, they were considered morphological errors.However, confusion in the use of transitive/intransitive verbs was considered a global syntactic error because it affects the whole sentence structure. Also, tense errors were anticipated because the essay topic Ã¢â ¬Å"If you were to meet a celebrityÃ¢â¬ ¦? Ã¢â¬ presumably requires the use of the conditional. As long as the errors did not interfere with the understanding of the sentence, they were put into tense errors, i. e. , morphological errors. It was sometimes difficult to draw the line between lexical errors and mechanical errors; that is, whether the word is a wrong choice or simply a spelling mistake.If the word had a separate meaning but exists as a word, then it was treated as lexical error; otherwise, it was marked as a mechanical error. However, if an inappropriate word choice disrupts the meaning in the whole sentence, it was considered a syntactic error. In short, the decision of error classification depends on each sentence. As for repeated mechanical errors in the same sentence, i. e. , spelling mistakes, punctuation, and capitalization, the multiple mistakes were counted as one. Findings and Discussion First of all, not all errors were easily categorized: some went beyond and across the categories.In each case, errors were carefully identified and classified according to the seriousness of the problem. If one major error included other minor errors, then together they were considered to be a major error. For example, a sentence Ã¢â¬Å"*And, I want to *go to abroad such as the UK, the US, *French, *Australlia and so onÃ¢â¬ was categorized as one syntactic error because the misuse of verb and adverb (go to abroad) causes sentence diffusion, even though this sentence included one lexical error Page 5 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 5 (French) and one mechanical error (Australlia).Secondly, a danger with lists of Ã¢â¬Å"commonÃ¢â¬ ESL/EFL errors, as Ferris (2005) herself points out, is that they may be over-generalized to all students. Of course, individual students have different language capabilities and learning traits; for example, one student constantly omitted articles and another student confused tense of verbs all through her es say. Although the statistics give a general picture of the problems, these do not apply to every student. While keeping these considerations in mind, the statistics provide interesting information.The total number of errors was 1518 (596 in 46 first year essays, 491 in 58 second year essays, and 431 in 44 third year essay). The average number of errors per student was 13. 5 for the first year students, 11. 2 for the second year students, and 9. 8 for the third year students. Considering the short length of the essay, these were not small numbers, although the average number of errors decreased according to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ year in school. As a total, syntactic errors dominated the rest at 29%, followed by lexical errors (21%), morphological errors in nouns and mechanical errors (18%), and morphological errors (14%).According to the school year, the most common errors observed in first year essays were lexical errors, which comprised 24% of the total, while syntactic errors compr ised most errors in second and third year essays, which amounted to 35. 2% and 31. 1% respectively. Among the first yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ lexical errors, Ã¢â¬Å"word choiceÃ¢â¬ was the most common mistake (93 in total). As for second year and third year samples, as many as 158 and 121 errors were made respectively in Ã¢â¬Å"sentence structure. Ã¢â¬ These findings indicate that first year students did not have sufficient vocabulary while the second and third year students did not use it adequately.Page 6 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 6 Table 1. Common EFL Writing Errors in Japanese High School StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Essays Percentage of Total Errors Marked (%) Error Type 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Average Morphological Errors Lexical Errors Syntactic Errors Mechanical (Verbs) Tense Form Subject-verb agreement Total Verb Errors (Nouns) Articles/determiners Noun endings Total Noun Errors Word choice Word form Informal usage Idiom error Pronoun error Total Lexical Errors Sentence structure Run-ons Fragments Total Syntactic Errors Punctuation Spelling CapitalizationTotal Mechanical Errors 5. 87 5. 87 0. 67 12. 4 10. 6 8. 22 18. 8 15. 6 1. 51 1. 01 3. 19 2. 68 24. 0 15. 3 1. 34 3. 19 19. 8 5. 7 14. 4 4. 87 25. 0 8. 96 1. 22 2. 65 12. 8 11. 0 5. 91 16. 9 13. 6 4. 07 0. 61 1. 02 3. 87 23. 2 32. 2 0. 61 2. 44 35. 2 1. 43 6. 11 4. 28 11. 8 11. 1 2. 09 4. 64 17. 9 9. 98 8. 12 18. 1 9. 51 3. 25 0. 23 1. 16 2. 55 16. 7 28. 1 1. 86 1. 16 31. 1 1. 86 11. 4 3. 02 16. 2 8. 66 3. 06 2. 65 14. 4 10. 5 7. 42 17. 9 12. 9 2. 94 0. 62 1. 79 3. 04 21. 3 25. 2 1. 27 2. 26 28. 7 3. 0 10. 6 4. 05 17. 7 Percentage of Total Errors Marked 14% 18% 21% 29% 18%Morphological Error: Verbs Morphological Error: Nouns Lexical Error Syntactic Error Mechanical Error Percentage of Errors by Year 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 Year Mechanical Error Syntactic Error Lexical Error Morphological Error: Nouns Morphological Error: Verbs Page 7 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 7 The syntactic errors, the most prevalent errors, were mainly related to verbs, for example, the misuse of be-verbs, transitive and intransitive verbs, auxiliary verbs, no verb use, the word order in indirect questions, and tense confusion in relation to the conditional.From an English educatorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, it was rather disappointing that many students made errors in the use of basic verbs such as Ã¢â¬Å"goÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"wantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"listenÃ¢â¬ , such as in Ã¢â¬Å"*I want to go my futureÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"*I want become a doctorÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"*I want to listen the storyÃ¢â¬ . In the case of errors in conditional sentences, on the other hand, the structure was usually grammatically correct, but the meaning was irrational. For example, if a writer mentioned a celebrity such as a historical man/woman, movie actor, singer, athlete or an imaginary character, s/he had to make the sentence conditional.However, some used simple present tense. One of these examples is, Ã¢â¬Å" *If I ride DoraemonÃ¢â¬â¢s time machine, I can go everywhereÃ¢â¬ . This type of error was put into verb tense errors under morphological errors. As an explanation of Japanese studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of conditional, Thompson (2001) asserts that even when students have mastered the mechanics of forming unreal conditionals and wishes in all their complexity, the problem of concept remains. Additionally, it is difficult for Japanese students to use conditionals correctly, for there is a disparity in the use of conditionals in English and Japanese.Another characteristic in the syntactic errors stemed from interference from Japanese, their mother tongue (L1 interference). L1 interference is considered a major obstacle to second and foreign language acquisition (Ellis, 2003; Ferris, 2005; Lightbrown & Spada, 2002; Littlewood, 2002. Some examples from studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ essays are as follows: (a)* He challenged. ( ) (b)* They hit all over the world since 1984. ( 1984 ) In these sentences, t he writers used English equivalents for the Japanese words, i. e. , (a) chousen-suru=challenge, and (b) itto-suru=hit. Incidentally, the verbs Ã¢â¬Å"challengeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"hitÃ¢â¬ are transitive verbs, which means these sentences are grammatically incorrect; therefore, they were classified as syntactic errors. Other syntactic errors from L1 interference are observed in Page 8 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 8 relation to the choice of prepositions. The examples are: (c) *I will join to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s network of UNICEF. ( ) (d) *I want to marry with him. ( ) The writers translated the Japanese prepositional particle Ã¢â¬Å"? [ni]Ã¢â¬ into Ã¢â¬Å"toÃ¢â¬ in example (c) and Ã¢â¬Å"? to]Ã¢â¬ into Ã¢â¬Å"withÃ¢â¬ in example (d). This type of error is common among Japanese students because transitive verbs include prepositions in their Japanese meanings; therefore it is hard to distinguish whether a verb is transitive or prepositional from the translat ed meanings. The second dominant error category was that of lexical errors, especially in first year student essays. Here again L1 interference was observed in word choices. (e) *I think his baseball soul is the biggest of all. ( ) (f) *I want to hear Murasaki Shikibu three questions. 3 ) In (e), Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"bigÃ¢â¬ do not match with each other in this context. The writer meant to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I think he has the strongest spirit in baseball. Ã¢â¬ In Japanese Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"spiritÃ¢â¬ are given the same translation as Ã¢â¬Å"? ( )tamashii. Ã¢â¬ Besides, neither soul nor spirit can be Ã¢â¬Å"bigÃ¢â¬ but rather Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ . In (f), the verb Ã¢â¬Å"hearÃ¢â¬ is derived from the Japanese word Ã¢â¬Å" ( ) kikuÃ¢â¬ , which can also mean Ã¢â¬Å"listenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"askÃ¢â¬ in Japanese. These students seemed to have picked up words without thinking about content and collocation.Presumably, in English class, there is a tendenc y for students not to consult dictionaries for language usage but to look up word meaning only, then memorize the main translation of the word, and use this translation regardless of context. The third and fourth prominent error categories were noun related morphological errors and mechanical errors, especially spelling mistakes. In noun errors, article errors outnumbered the rest, accounting for as much as 10% of the total. The problem with articles stems from the fact that the Japanese language has no concept of articles and the countable and uncountable distinction.It is natural that Japanese students have difficulty in using them correctly. In addition, articles are introduced near the end in many of grammar textbooks, which in a sense is parallel to the language Page 9 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 9 acquisition order described by Littlewood (2002) of a study of children acquiring morphemes in their native language. Plurals and articles have always been, and will continue to be difficult to teach to Japanese students, which is why some teachers wait until the end of school year to introduce them in class.Spelling mistakes, sorted as mechanical errors, comprised 10% of the total number of errors. This was partly because many students applied Japanese (katakana) pronunciation to English spellings. For example, writers who spelled *performence (performance), *calacter (character), and *confort (comfort) did not seem to spell according to his/her understanding of the pronunciation, but from how the words sound through the filter of katakana. Lastly the problem of organization as well as the use of conjunctions needs to be mentioned.Sentences starting with Ã¢â¬Å"becauseÃ¢â¬ were categorized as fragments which belonged to syntactic errors, whereas sentences starting with Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"soÃ¢â¬ were not treated as errors. Ã¢â¬Å"AndÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"soÃ¢â¬ are taught as conjunctions that connect two phrases that carry equal weight in the sentence, whereas Ã¢â¬Å"becauseÃ¢â¬ is taught as a conjunction followed by a subordinate clause. However, the fact is that as many as 75 Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ s and 89 Ã¢â¬Å"soÃ¢â¬ s were observed at the beginning of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ sentences. James (1998) states that learners tend to overuse connectors to support logical relationships between propositions that just do not exist.It is probable that few students have learned how to organize English writing; that is, they do not know they should start with an introduction, followed by a main body, and then a conclusion, paying attention to the consistency of their thoughts. Those who were not familiar with English writing ended up listing items in order: who they wanted to meet, what they would like to do, and where they would like to go. Without cohesive devices such as paraphrasing and rephrasing, or markers that direct the logical flow of sentences, the writers could not communicate their ideas effectively.Conc lusion How, then, can teachers empower students to become better writers? Obviously the class time allotted for writing is limited, yet there are things teachers can do in order to improve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Page 10 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 10 writing in other English classes. Judging from the fact that sentence fragments outnumbered other errors in this study, teachers need to draw studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention to the whole sentence structure and sentence combining when discussing verbs and other grammar points in class.The confusion between transitive/intransitive verbs and prepositional verbs can be pointed out in reading class, bringing awareness to the differences between English and Japanese. When students come up with a new verb, or even a familiar one, they should be aware of the conceptual gap between English and Japanese. One good example of a split between Japanese and English is the word (to see). There are many more English verbs for miru. In Japanaese mi ru is used when you perceive with your eyes, when you watch, look, view, overlook or investigate; when you take care of somebody like children or sick people, as in Ã¢â¬Å"kodomo wo miruÃ¢â¬ .You can even say miru when you try something, like Ã¢â¬ËmitemiruÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËyattemiruÃ¢â¬â¢, literally Ã¢â¬Å"try to seeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"try to doÃ¢â¬ respectively. Therefore, it is confusing for students to select the suitable equivalent of miru in English. They have to think about the context. Kowalski (2005) gives usages of in Figure 4: Figure 4 Different kinds of meanings associated with see (something that falls within your field of vision) look (intentionally at a stationary object) watch (something moving) Also, the gap between English and Japanese applies not only at sentential level but also to the lexical level.As I mentioned earlier, L1 interference affects both sentence structure and word choice. Underlying knowledge of usage and collocation enables students to choose the right words in right the places in their writing. Because of the avalanche of Japanese-English in the media, however, it has become even more difficult to eliminate these Japanglish words from studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ vocabulary. Teachers and learners should pay special attention not reinforce these words and phrases in the English language classroom. Page 11 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 11Good writing, however, does not rely only on grammatical and lexical accuracy but also on the creativity in context and the logical flow of sentences. In order to write coherent, well-structured paragraphs and essays, the writers have to be creative and concentrate on the content as well. First, teachers can help students raise their awareness of how to organize English writing, and how units of sentences and paragraphs are connected with one another to form meaningful text. By recognizing the importance of coherency in their writing, the students can dedicate themselves to the i deas or message that they are trying to convey.I employ Ã¢â¬Å"process writingÃ¢â¬ for the improvement of this skill. In contrast to translation or guided composition, Ã¢â¬Å"process writingÃ¢â¬ emphasizes the processes such as planning, drafting, and reviewing (Johnson & Johnson, 1998 cited in Furneaux, 2000). In this contest, only a few participants seemed to employ this approach, possibly because of the time constraints of the competition. By reflecting on their writing process, students will internalize their grammatical and lexical knowledge and utilize it for production.Another effective approach to improve writing skill is to work on other language skills. All four skills are interconnected. Even though writing classes are not consistently available in school curriculums, compared to reading and oral communication classes, students can cultivate their writing skills by consciously reading or listening. Krashen and Terrell (1983) claim that speech and writing production emerges by focusing on listening and reading. Extensive reading outside of the class, for instance, will become a rich source for extensive writing.Exposure to authentic writing will help students expand their vocabulary and write well-organized, reasonably cohesive essays. In conclusion, I believe that Japanese students can become competent writers of English with the appropriate support from teachers. Quoting Kramsch (1993): Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers have to impart a body of knowledge, but learners have to discover that knowledge for themselves in order to internalize itÃ¢â¬ (p. 6). I suggest that teachers integrate the grammar focus while encouraging creativity and teaching organizational form.Learners, on the other hand, can enrich their knowledge of language by taking every opportunity to use it, developing learning strategies outside of the class, and reflecting on the writing process before, during and after they write. Page 12 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 12 Referenc es Ellis, R. (2003). Second language acquisition. (8 th ed. ). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2005). Treatment of error in second language writing. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Furneaux, C. (2000). Process writing.The University of Reading school of linguistics and applied language studies. Retrieved September 29, 2005, from http://www. rgd. ac. uk/AcaDeps/cl/slas/process. htm James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use Exploring error analysis. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Kowalski, C. (2005). Translation in the writing class: friend or foe? In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. D. Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. San Francisco:The Alemany Press. Lightbrown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2002). How languages are learned. (2 nd. ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W. (2002). Foreign and second language learning. (17 th ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Minegishi, H. (2005, March). The questionnaire result. Saitama high school English education bulletin, 41. 49-59. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The course of study for foreign languages. 2003, March). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www. mext. go. jp/english/shotou/030301. htm Sonoda, N. (2005). A comparative study of two approaches to English writing: translation and process writing. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds), Learner English: A Page 13 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 13 teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Ta-Nehisi CoatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Between the World and Me is in essence about the rigors inflicted on people of color, and specifically black people, by America. His work goes on in depth about the challenges black people face in America, the communities and the world view they grow up in. CoatesÃ¢â¬â¢ work is masterful at boiling down and explaining the problems that people of color face, from the outright racism of a brutal police force to subtler forms of similarly dangerous discrimination in the classroom, in politics, and in the media. He couches these acts as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦violence, upon the body.Ã¢â¬ (21), talking about how even the smaller forms of discrimination all boil down to violence against black people. By simplifying these acts to what they truly are, he makes the it more visceral and direct, cutting right to the source with great effect. Through this discussion about the black body, we learn about how it is endangered, how this endangerment takes form, and what it means to try and protect the black body. Over the years great strides have been made against racism, but by no means is that fight over. Racism moved from shackles and Jim Crow laws to new, insidious forms that still work just as hard to keep people of color down. As racism was fought harder and harder it adapted in order to survive, now itÃ¢â¬â¢s evident in things like police brutality, the war on drugs, and media bias, things that the white American public can misunderstand or brush under the rug. As Coates said,Ã¢â¬ Very few AmericansShow MoreRelatedThe World And Me910 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAt the time that I am writing you this letter, horrendous things are happening to the black community, these things got me thinking about you and your future. 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